It depends on witch stage in learning you are on.
If it's age 7- 18 then critical thinking. I can tell for sure!!! I just changed from one system to another (from examination to critical) and I must say that it's much easier, much nicer and much more usefull to learn by critical thinking.
Because in real life, unless you become a mad scienist or something, you really need to develop society skills.
They are really important and you have to develop them from an early age.
And you have to learn how to learn in this age... If techers just push information in a childs brain, it'll do no good at all- they will forget that information if its tought like that 'till they really need it1
When it comes to high school; I tink it's time to work harder, and you have already developed all the skills and you have to learn by examination orientated system
Also examination orientated system should be used just before the exams- when techers review everything. As a person who has a short memory, I know that it makes no sence to study like you study in the examination orientated system throughout all year... I don't remember all the things!