Rapier generally refers to a relatively long-bladed sword characterized by a complex hilt which is constructed to provide protection for the hand wielding it. While the blade might be broad enough to cut to some degree (but nowhere near that of the thicker, heavier swords in use around the Middle Ages), the strength of the rapier is its ability as a thrusting weapon. The blade might be sharpened along its entire length, sharpened only from the center to the tip (as described by Capoferro), or completely without a cutting edge as called "estoc" by Pallavicini, a rapier master who, in 1670, strongly advocated using a weapon with two cutting edges. A typical example would weigh 1 kg and have a relatively long and slender blade of 2.5 centimetres or less in width, 1 meter or more in length and ending in a sharply pointed tip.
The Greatsword or grete Swerd is referenced today mostly as an extremely large or powerful weapon, like the Zweihänder, in comparison with less sizable weapons like the falchion. In history, the sword had the same relative use as a comparative term between one smaller weapon and another considerably larger. In this case, the comparison was not between longswords and the even longer bihänder as is the modern one, but between the smaller single handed variants of the spatha, the so-called "transition swords", and larger variants thereof, with longer blades and hilts. For comparison, single handed transitional swords of Type XII have a grip about 4.5 inches (11.4 cm) in length, while the larger subtype XIIIa sword has a grip approximately 6.5 to 9 inches (16.5 to 22.8 cm) long. A similarly long grip is found on the XIIa, another early great sword. The XIIa was originally a part of the XIIIa classification, but was decided to "taper too strongly" and to be "too acutely pointed" to fit appropriately.
Katana (刀 or かたな, Katana?) is a type of nihontō, without doubt the most common sub-category. Originally used as a general term for single-edged sword, as opposed to tsurugi (剣 or つるぎ, tsurugi?), which is double-edged sword. Later used specifically for describing nihontō that are around 70~90 cm long with a curved blade and is different from Chokutō (直刀 or ちょくとう, Chokutō?) that is of a straight blade. It is a very dangerous weapon usually known to be utilized by samurai.