Non-Infectious Fluids Saliva
—is NOT considered to be infectious. The only time saliva would pose a risk would be if it had blood present in it. There are no documented cases of HIV transmission through saliva. There is a protein in the mouth that attaches itself to the surface of blood cells and blocks infection by HIV that appears to be present in the mucous membrane in the mouth at a level sufficient enough to reduce the concentration of HIV in saliva to non-infectious levels. Urine and Tears
—are NOT considered infectious. While HIV has been found in urine and tears, it is not concentrated in an amount sufficient for transmission. Sweat, Feces, Vomit
—are NOT considered infectious. HIV has never been found in these materials. The only possible risk would be if there was blood present. HIV Transmission Routes
HIV can enter the body through open cuts or sores and by directly infecting cells in the mucous membranes. Transmission can happen in the mouth, the eyes, vagina, penis (through the urethra), in the anus and rectum. HIV cannot cross healthy, unbroken skin. Sexual Transmission
HIV can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, both vaginal and anal. HIV can easily pass through the mucus membranes in the genitals and the rectum, or may pass through cuts and sores. HIV can also be transmitted through oral sex. Conditions such as bleeding gums and poor oral health increase the risk of transmission and through oral sex.
HIV can be transmitted by contact between infectious fluids and bleeding cuts or open sores in the skin. However, healthy, intact skin does not allow HIV to enter the body, and provides an excellent barrier against the virus.